(United Nations Economic and Social Council)
Youth & Technology: Tackling the 4th Industrial Revolution
Information and communication technologies (ICT) has evolved over the years and is now a crucial part of our lives and work. In the recent years, these innovations have brought us the 4th Industrial Revolution, which gears our way of life towards greater automation and technology-based data processing. Youth in particular has taken advantage of this evolution by creating a plethora of new jobs and opportunities by creating technology-based start-ups, spread a new form of social influence, and many more.
Yet, these innovations also bring new challenges for the youth. ICT products such as artificial intelligence and robots have been and will continue to pose as competitor against human in the labor market, raising questions on the types of work the youths would have to do in the future. On the other issue the age of hyper-connectivity has brought are concerns about privacy and a new wave of disinformation that have been popularized by terms such as fake news. This council would discuss on what the youths should do in regards to automation, protection of themselves in the cyber world, and to find a common ground in embracing the present conditions and preparing for the future.
Ethnic Tensions: Towards a Peaceful, Prosperous & Integrated Africa?
Numerous ethnic tensions have arisen in Africa in the year 2018, in which more than 300,000 people have been displaced. In Southern Ethiopia, tensions among the Oromos and the people from Somali have displaced many since June. In August, fourteen people of Fulani have executed by Dogon militiamen in Mali. Until now, ethnic conflicts still happen as well in South Sudan, where the Dinka and the Nuer are fighting against each other. In all cases, the confrontation between ethnicities threatens the stability of African countries.
Many factors seem to have instigated the tensions. Some of the identified core drivers of tensions among ethnics are an association of one ethnic group with crime, extremism, and even terrorism. In many instances, ungrounded assumptions led to tensions that have escalated to clashes that resulted in multiple casualties.
With the concept of African unity held dear in the vision of the African Union, it is time to not only address unity on a state level, but also on the community and individual levels. Throughout this council, the committee is expected to express their stance on ethnic conflicts, identity clashes, and to work together in finding sustainable answers to the issue.
(United Nations Human Rights Council)
Humanitarian Security: Assuring Migrant Workers’ Rights
Driven primarily by the promises of a better life, migrant workers have often risked their lives against grave odds such as exploitation, violation, and discrimination regardless of their status as documented or undocumented worker. In many cases, they would face economic and social injustice such as unpaid work, excessive working hours, torture at work, and even discriminated in society.
Although the international community through the United Nations has committed to protecting migrants especially migrant worker rights by adopting relevant norms and principles through The International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Family (ICMW), the issues continue to exist. This is shown by the many cases that have been recorded in regions such as the mega construction projects in the Middle East, the private houses in Southeast Asia, and to the overcrowded factories in Central Asia.
It seems that the implementation of the international convention is hampered by the lack of participation from the non-ratifying states and the fact that the International Labor Organization (ILO) is not in the position to enforce the principles of such convention. This council is set with purposes to address the complex issues of migrant workers, ensure the implementation of migrant workers’ rights in every aspect by every actor, and reconcile the fulfillment of migrant worker rights as individual whilst paying attention to the differing social and economic conditions of states, communities, and other relevant stakeholders.
Private Military Companies: Evolution of Military in the year 2025
The way of war and how it is conducted has changed throughout the ages. In the modern times, Private Military Companies which are a group of security industries that provide expert military measures have begun to leave their mark on the battlefield.
In the year 2025, PMCs have been extensively employed to operate in numerous conflicts across the globe. From local conflicts to the various coup and even a major war in the Middle East, PMCs have been deployed on the ground where governments are unwilling to deploy their own troops and supplies. Yet, without clear global norms and principles on regulating such force, there have been reports of gross misconducts and atrocities done by PMC operators.
The difficulties in regulating PMCs lies on the question regarding their nature and the will of their employers to enter into regulatory arrangements. The current regulatory framework that was laid out in 1989, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, seems to be not effective in setting the necessary norms and principles on the question of PMCs.
An unregulated force involved in many of the world’s conflicts pose a multifaceted issue that threatens the safety of the individuals, all the way up to the security of the state and the international community as a whole. As such, the United Nations Security Council is expected to address the issue of PMCs accordingly.
United Nations Security Council
The Dawn of the Africas: The Congo Crisis of 1960-1965
Lacking political solidarity among its political factions, particularly regarding the issue of federalism and ethnic relations, the Democratic Republic of Congo was driven to a period of upheaval. The issues could be traced back to when the unprepared Belgian Congo declared independence from Belgium. Since the very beginning of its inception, it was torn by internal conflicts that were fuelled by ethnic tensions and competing interests.
In 1960, secessionist sentiments that were supported by foreign powers grew in regions such as Katanga. The very existence of the state, as well as the security of its people, was threatened. On the other hand, the military which was then led by Mobutu Sese-Seko, was also increasingly involved in politics, adding more complex actor to the issue. Moreover, the two dominant superpowers of the time; the Soviet Union and the United States was increasingly wary of the situation as the Cold War kept them ever vigilant.
With tensions growing over time with the risk to trigger destructive flashpoints, the situation in Congo caught the attention of world leaders. Ideas float to bring all relevant stakeholders together to address the situation, yet it remains to be seen how such a plan would affect the course of the issue.
The council has the aim to provide reports on the discussions of all committees in Padjadjaran Model United Nations 2019. The journalists of the Press Corps will build articles that will be accumulated and distributed during the conference later on. The Press Corps’ journalists are going to represent global journalistic bodies as their basic policies and views to further investigate the topics of all discussions in different committees to create understandings for their reports. The journalists are required to have the adequate ability of critical thinking, surpass information through denotative writings, the instinct to distinguish credible and deceitful data, and also concerning the tremendous issues of invalid information nowadays. Therefore, the Press Corps needs aspiring journalists with excellent writing and data collection skills to provide the world with coherent and valid information.